THE TREATMENT OF SKIN DISEASES.
What are the General principles of treatment of skin diseases.
Treatment of patients should be complex and individual. Common drug therapy includes use of antibiotics, psychotropic, antiallergic drugs, hormones and bacterial pyro-genic drugs. The great value has the external, local treatment.
What are the characteristics of nursing.
Most often skin diseases are a manifestation of General pathology of the body, allergies. In addition to a variety of pathological cells in the skin, diseases of this group are accompanied by painful itching, burning, insomnia, making patients irritable. In this regard, the nurse requires patience and tact when working with this patient population.
The important role of nurse at carrying out of preventive examinations of children’s con-tingent, identifying cases of head lice and scabies.
How is the external treatment of skin diseases.
External treatment aims to accelerate the elimination of lesions and reduce the itching sensation, burning, contraction, and pain is usually a nurse.
External treatment begins with cleaning of the lesion from the scales, crusts, pus, fragments of the walls of the bubbles and bubbles. To do this, use tweezers, ethnocentricy and cotton swabs soaked with 3% hydrogen peroxide. Areas that cannot be immediately cleaned, treated with sunflower, peach, linseed or any other oil and treated again after 10-15 minutes or leave the oil dressing for a longer time. Contaminated erosions and ulcers treated with 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide and the skin around lesions rubbed camphor and 2% salicylic alcohol.
For topical treatment of skin diseases most often use the powders, lotions, wet dressings, lubricating, agitated water and oil suspensions (mash), pasta, ointments, plasters and other dosage forms.
What are the duties nurse to respect the rules of storage and use outer drugs.
The nurse needs to monitor banks, which are used to store ointments, lotions, solutions, have been carefully and clearly written the name and date of preparation. The use of external agents upon expiry of their validity period is not permitted, as this may cause irritation and skin inflammation (dermatitis.
What are the medicinal powder.
Powders are composed of powdery substances that are applied in a smooth thin layer on the lesion. Indifferent powders contain zinc oxide, talc, starch, white clay and have podospora-maumee, anti-inflammatory, they dried the skin (diaper rash), cool it and absorb exudate. Sulfonamides (streptocid white, etc.) in powder form, xeroform, dermatol included in the composition of the powders for the treatment of erosions and ulcers.
How is the treatment of skin diseases with the help of lotions.
Medicinal solutions, previously cooled, 2-4 moisten gauze, gently squeeze and apply on the affected area. Change lotions is 5-15 minutes (as it dries) within half an hour: the procedure is repeated 3-5 times a day (depending on the severity of the process). Lotions reduce moisture and swelling, relax the itching and burning.
What’s the feature of wet-to-dry dressings.
Wet-to-dry bandage doing on the same principle as a lotion, but gauze are 8-12 layers; dressings changed every 30-60 minutes or less (after drying). These bandages are applied with limited skin lesions with marked infiltration and weeping. Pustular diseases of the skin and common acute inflammation are contraindications to the use of wet-to-dry dressings.
How and when to use a hot compress.
A hot compress use in chronic inflammatory processes with limited deep infiltrates of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (it-redermic, etc.). Composed of 10-12 layers of cheesecloth moistened with one of the solutions (lead water, 2% boric acid solution, etc.), wrung out and applied to the lesion according to its size. On top of gauze impose vasanai sheet of paper somewhat larger, then a layer of cotton wool and tape up. Compress change 1-2 times a day. In contrast to the warming dermatological compress is done without the wool.
What medicinal substances are used for lubrication of affected skin areas.
Lubrication produced alcoholic and aqueous solutions of aniline dyes (e.g., brilliant green); pruritus, atopic dermatitis — aqueous-alcoholic solutions of menthol (1-2 %), carbolic acid (1-1,5 %) and aqueous solutions of copper sulfate (2-10 %), silver nitrate (2-10.
What is the mechanism of action of agitated water and oil suspensions (boltushek.
Water, glycerin and powdered substances (30 % of the total weight) are water mash. Powdered substances are more likely to be zinc oxide, talc, white clay, starch. Water mash has anti-inflammatory, soothe the itching and burning. Water-alcohol magmas contain alcohol. Oil mash prepared from the same powder and liquid of a fatty basis (sunflower, peach or mineral oil). Often used the “zinc” oil (30% zinc oxide and 70% vegetable oil). Oil mash and soften the skin, help remove scales, crusts and decrease the sense of tension, contraction.
How to use mash.
Before use, aqueous or oil suspensions and stirred with the help of cotton wool is applied on the affected, plot; you can add drugs sulfur, Ichthyol, tar, menthol, etc. Shake the mixture on the skin and dry quickly, so the bandage is not applied. They can’t be used for heavy soak, on the hairy parts of the head.
What are the principles of application of therapeutic pastes in dermatological practice.
Paste made of equal amounts of powdery substances (zinc oxide, talc, etc.) and fatty base (lanolin, vaseline, etc.). They are deeper than the magmas, but less active than ointments, anti-inflammatory and drying effect. Paste testovatoy consistency to stay on the skin without the armband. On the scalp in the presence of moisture of the paste is not used. They are applied to the skin 1-2 times a day. Once in 3 days the paste is removed with a swab moistened with vegetable oil.
Frequently used zinc paste consisting of equal parts of zinc oxide, talc, lanolin and vaseline. When testimony in the paste include ihtiola, Naftalan, resorcinol, sulfur products, tar, etc. of the Paste applied to the lesions with a spatula and gently smear on the hearth stripes. On the surface of the oiled area is applied a gauze and bandage (no more than 2-3 rounds.
What are the ointments used in the dermatological practice.
Ointments consist of one or more medicinal substances, evenly mixed with the fatty ointment base (petrolatum, lanolin, pork fat, naphthalene, etc.). Prescribed ointments in chronic and subacute skin diseases in the skin inflammatory infiltrate, as they have a profound effect. Consume 2-10 % of the sulfur ointment, 2-3 % tar, 1-3 % white mercury, 2% salicylic, 2 to 5 % Ichthyol, 2-3% of naphthalene and other creams and ointments with antibiotics (erythromycin, biomitsin and others). In the treatment of bubble and herpes zoster interferonov apply ointment.
Use ointments containing corticostero-idnia drugs (sinalar, ftorokort, flucinar, prednisolone, hydrocortisone, diversiloba), corticosteroids and antibiotics — oksikort, geocorton, locacorten (neomycin, vioform, tar), ultra-LARN, an dermozolon, deperzolon, monomycin-prednisolo-new (10 g ointment 1000000 UNITS of antibiotic and 0.1 g of pre-nisolone), sinalar N with neomycin or sinalar — with chinaforum.
The ointment is applied with a spatula evenly on a piece of paper and put it on the lesion, strengthen the bandage or ointment applied directly to the skin, leaving without a bandage.
How to use plasters in the treatment of skin diseases.
In emplastic base, but fat is the wax or resin. The patch compared to the ointment has a thick and sticky consistency. It is preheated and applied to the affected area with a thick layer; it acts more deeply than the ointment. The patch that does not contain medicinal substances, is used for fixing dressings to the skin. If a normal patch badly sticks to the skin, it slightly heated.
What soap used to treat skin diseases.
The therapeutic Soaps are sulfur, tar, Ichthyol, resorcinol, sulfur, salicylic, sulfuric-money-tarneit.
How to prepare and when used therapeutic baths.
Treatment General baths with the addition of pine extract, potassium permanganate (1:10000), oak bark (1 kg of bark is boiled in b l of water), a decoction of bran (1 kg of wheat bran are boiled in 3 l of oxen) and local (37-40 °C) is used in skin diseases of the hands, feet, genitals, anus. So hot baths for the hands is prescribed for ozdoblennya, vasomotor disorders.
Baths with the addition of the starch and bran (wheat or almond) accept as antipruritic, and softening the skin. The starch or bran (500-1000 g) in a linen pouch dipped in a bath of water of indifferent or lukewarm (37 °C) temperatures and that the content is received into the water from time to time squeeze the bag. From 1-2 kg of bran pre-cook the broth, strain and add to bath. Almond bran can be added directly to the bath. The duration of therapeutic baths 3-60 minutes or more.
Shared bath, shower shown in psoriasis, neuro-dermatitis. Water cleanses the skin of residues of medicinal substances, peels, loosens thickened Horny layer of the skin, has a calming effect on the nervous system, improves blood circulation.
What methods of physical therapy effects are used in the treatment of skin diseases.