THE NOTION OF MILITARY MEDICINE.
THE EMERGENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF MILITARY MEDICINE.
Military medicine theory and practice of health care (medical support) of the armed forces in peacetime and wartime. It is a system of scientific knowledge and practical activities, which aim the strengthening and preservation of health of personnel of the Armed Forces, prevention and treatment of diseases and during wars and also military defeats, which ultimately aimed at maintaining a sufficient level of combat readiness and combat capability of the troops.
The necessary base. ensure the development of the theory and improving the practice of healthcare armed forces is a military medical organization. which is represented by specifically designed for this purpose forces and means, United in the armed forces in a specialized system based on certain principle and rules of the military medical service.
The theoretical basis of military medicine is primarily medical science. However, spetsificheskaya life and activities of the troops, the originality of the pathology of combat injuries and diseases in the war, and especially the organizational structure of the armed forces and their combat use doesn’t allow transfers in the military medical practice of regulations and rules adopted in the civilian health care. Therefore, at a certain stage of development of the armed forces has given rise to a legitimate need for such methods their medical care, which would be consistent with the organizational principles of building the armed forces and would be most effective in a combat situation. Consequently, in the formation and development of military medicine is based not only on the General provisions medical, but also, not least, of military science, i.e. in the system of scientific knowledge of military medicine is “at the crossroads” medical and military Sciences, laws which affect its formation and development.
Military medicine was established as an independent field of knowledge and practical activity with the advent of standing armies (in Russia: end 17th-beginning 18th century). It was during this period, the need arose to have a part of the regular army of the military medical service. as a special organization dedicated to medical support. In 1620 the master Pushkarskaya order Onisimova Mikhailov was compiled the book “the Book of the military about all the shooting and fiery tricks.” In accordance with the provisions of this manuscript, a physician in the regular army occupied a paid position, had a helper, have transport and the necessary set of medicines. It was reported to military authorities and was obliged by duty to render medical assistance to persons of his regiment smoothly and freely. In the book for the first time regulated the organizational, legal and financial basis for the office and work of a doctor in the army. This hour, in the reign of Mikhail Romanov, can be considered the year of origin of the medical service.
Along with this, the conditions of life. of life of military personnel, particularly his work has identified the need to find such a kind of its working methods, which would better respond to the specific conditions of military service in peacetime and the nature of the fighting provide troops during the war.
The second half of the 17th century, considers the beginning of the birth of the military hospital, when Peter the great carried out the reorganization of military Affairs. They were created by the Russian regular army. It was subjected to restructuring and the military medical organization. In the early 18th century, it had already clearly defined structure and appropriate capabilities. The army has established an extensive network of field hospitals and permanent military hospitals.
In the 18-19 centuries Russia was involved in numerous wars. In the course of these wars perfected and improved organization of medical support of troops. In the army there were mobile hospitals that followed the troops and provided medical care to the wounded and sick directly to the theater of operations. Successfully developed the scientific foundations of military medicine. Thus in the improvement of technical equipment of the army and complication of methods of warfare are increasingly high requirements are presented to study the conditions of military service. scientific development of the peculiarities of military pathology and to the development of a number of specific areas or sections of military medicine. such as a military epidemiology, an aviation medicine, a military toxicology, etc.
At the present stage of development of military medicine is a complex of military medical knowledge. which includes a significant number of immature private military medical Sciences: organization and tactics of medical service, military field hee Ruhr Ki-I. military field therapy. military epidemiology and hygiene, physiology of military labour. military toxicology and radiology, naval and aviation medicine, military medical logistics, military medical statistics. military medical geography, etc.
The outfit with that military-medical sections are found in almost all branches of theoretical and clinical medicine: ophthalmology, dentistry, otolaryngology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, dermatology. forensic medicine etc.
All of these reasons military medicine sections are linked by a common goal, which is to work out the best for its efficiency and suitable for wide implementation in military medical practice in the armed forces of the objects and methods of preventive and curative work. Common to the various sections of military medicine are and the conditions in which the medical support of the troops and runs the activities of the military medical service: the type and nature of the fighting troops, the size and structure of sanitary losses of troops wounded and sick, the General principles of medical support of the armed forces, and other factors.
However, each of the branches of the military medicine has its specific object, their private goals and methods of its study and practical application in the system of medical support of troops.
Military medicine is a social and historical category. Its condition and directions of practical activity of the medical service of the armed forces (AF) in different historical epochs depend on the economic condition of the state, development and military medical science and other factors.
Somewhat different from other military medical Sciences position is the organization and tactics of medical SL have GBI (ATMS). She plays a somewhat unifying role in relation to all the rest of the private military medical Sciences and has a very significant impact. On the other hand, there is an inverse relationship between military-medical disciplines and the organization and tactics of medical service. Each military medical discipline for their scientific achievements has a definite influence on the development of ATMS.
THE ORGANIZATION AND TACTICS OF MEDICAL SERVICE.
AS A SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE, THE SUBJECT OF TEACHING.
The organization and tactics of medical service (formerly “sanitary tactics,” “military-sanitary tactics”, “tactics of the medical service”) constitutes one of the fundamental private military medical Sciences.
Most brief OTMS defined as the science of the organization of medical support of the armed forces during the war. It examines the experience of medical support of the armed forces and the conditions of the medical service in time of war, identifies patterns. defining the fundamental principles of construction of medical SL have JBI and organization of medical support of the armed forces; developing forms and methods of this security. the appropriate level of economic development. military Affairs and medicine, as well as the specific circumstances of the fighting.
The object of research and subject of teaching OTMS is the organization of medical support of the armed forces in various conditions and types of military activities during the war.
The selection of the organization and tactics of medical service as a separate branch of military medicine takes place in the late 19th and early 20th V. V. Its formation and development was dictated by the need to find such methods of application of forces and means of medical service, which would provide the possibility of using in combat achievements of medical science. Prior to this there W s accumulation of experience in the construction of the military medical service and the organization of medical support of troops. which light l Xia mainly in writings on military hygiene and military field hyr Khushun in rgii. For example, in 1813, was published by the labour inspector of the St. Petersburg Medical-surgical Academy Ilya Negalima Pocket book of military hygiene, or comments about maintaining the health of Russian soldiers . One of the parts of this book, which summarized the experience of the medical service of Russian army in the wars with France in 1805-1807 gg is entirely devoted to organization of medical support of troops in time of war and is one of the first works in the field of organization and tactics of medical service. In the period of development of system of medical support of the armed forces, when there is an urgent need for the lessons of military medicine organizational learning and there is a need of development of scientific bases of organization of medical support of troops in various combat conditions.