SAFETY. EMERGENCY MEDICINE.
Today’s life proves once again how fragile people, and not so much the soul as the body. Today, unfortunately, death happens far more often than expected. From a technical standpoint, a very reliable system that is superior in reliability to any existing. But the way of life so neestestvenno on the background of nature, as it is not able to design a person with a reliability corresponding to his daily activities, often with unpredictable events. Timely and competent first aid in various life-threatening situations allows you to save the victims life and significantly reduce the risk of disability. It often happens that a person is vital immediate medical attention. To provide her proper medical workers. And well, if they were there. And if not? In many professions associated with high risk to life (military, fire, police), in this respect there is a clear indication: the First medical assistance in the manner of self assistance . And this is one of the most difficult moments: it is necessary to provide medical care, but to provide it have not the health worker. This is not a new problem. Around the world, many non-medical professions profile provide knowledge of basic skills in first aid. It, first of all, those occupations which by nature of their activities come in contact with situations in which more often than other people are dying. A list of these occupations is quite broad. And we emphasize again that it is mainly the profession of medical profile. You are facing a difficult problem: How to help healthcare workers learn to provide the right medical assistance ? You can continue to practice visual AIDS and practice skills on simulators. However, as shown by experience, such knowledge, students lose a couple of years, during which they continue to study for a profession. You should consider the fact that learning simple methods of medical care are people with incomplete higher education and a primitive level of teaching, many are not satisfied. Involuntarily questions arise: what is the meaning of a particular medical manipulation? Why? What will happen if? And here arises the need to slip down to the basics of anatomy and physiology, the theory of the pathophysiological process, etc., etc. And this is clearly expands the boundaries of curriculum, and destroys the integrity of perception of learning material, deprives him some semblance of consistency. So, we can formulate the basic provisions, which, in our view, should underlie the teaching of medical training to 5.
6 non-medical professions, and in accordance with this will be built the proposed manual. 1. Should be taught the basics of anatomy and physiology. Simplification might be the subject of Latin names and excessive detail but at this stage should be described in anatomical and physiological peculiarities of those or other damage. 2. The language of instruction must be absolutely clear to the audience, we should avoid special medical terms, and if they are, something to explain in detail their meaning. 3. As people are more often engineering profile, you should as often as possible to draw analogies between anatomical and physiological data and various technical devices. 4. The necessary sessions should contain elements of practical skills. 5. Each lesson should include a required repetition of all previously completed basic types of first aid. This Handbook does not replace, other guidance on the provision of specialized medical care and is not used for teaching health professionals with an explanation of all professional medical details. In a popular and accessible form set out the issues anatomophysiological the state of vital systems of the body in everyday activities and in situations of life-threatening. In addition, it proposes the simple methods of first aid. These methods allow any person who renders assistance alone, even in the absence of the necessary equipment, to successfully carry out a complex of measures on rescue of life of the victim. Undoubtedly, the author could not take into account the diversity of possible situations, but an attempt was made to adapt this tool for the teaching of the cycle of medical training in technical universities. 6.
7 1. TASKS AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF ALL-RUSSIAN SERVICE OF DISASTER MEDICINE 1.1. A brief sketch of the history of disaster medicine In recent years, the provision of medical care for various industrial, transport and natural disasters became the subject of special attention of the public and government authorities of many developed countries. In 1971 the UN General Assembly was established by the who Executive Board on assistance in case of natural disasters (UNDRO). In its structure constantly operate the health sector in emergencies and the task force on natural and other disasters. In addition, the operational group this Committee coordinates emergency surgery assistance and manages them. Standing committees (departments) for emergency exist in all who regional offices. With this purpose, the International Committee of the red cross (ICRC) United 125 national societies KK. The ICRC is engaged in the organization and implementation of emergency assistance during man-made disasters, including armed conflicts. Another Commonwealth League of red cross Societies (LOCKE) – performs the same action in cases of natural disasters. We can assume that medicine as a new scientific direction appeared in the world in the 70-ies of XX century. In 1975 in Geneva, the International society of disaster medicine (MOMK), which is accepted in about 30 States. The objectives of the Society are: to coordinate the development of disaster medicine internationally; research in the areas of emergency aid to the victims and their treatment in the face of massive defeats; curriculum development in emergency medicine for students and doctors. It is important to note that MOMK all its activities in Association with the International civil defence organization (ICDO), which headquarters since 1968 in Geneva, and other international NGOs. In San Marino founded the research center for disaster medicine, created national and international associations of emergency medicine. The dramatic history of medicine in our country has more than two centuries. In the middle of the eighteenth century laid the foundations of military medicine, realized in subsequent years, activities of the military medical service. Crimean, Russo-Turkish and the first world 7.
8 war, cholera and plague epidemics of the late nineteenth century the Great Patriotic war, with its enormous experience of providing full medical care to large numbers of people and, finally, the wars in Afghanistan and Chechnya, are significant milestones in the development of those areas of medicine, understanding and interpretation which in the current phase, has provided some success in the elimination of consequences of catastrophes in peacetime. To protect the population in case of war in October 1932 was created local anti-aircraft defense (MoEHE), in which one of the leading services were health service (MSS MoEHE). In July 1961 MoEHE was reorganized into the civil defense (GO), and the health service – the medical service of civil defense (MSHO). Existed, MSHO as a special organization in the health care system, focused more on work in wartime. Its organizational structure (leadership, movable forming and institution) were bulky, power and money – enough mobile that does not fully meet the requirements that actually occurred in emergency situations in peacetime. Need to address this gap in the organization of the health care system was especially realized after the accident at Chernobyl and the earthquake in Armenia. In recent years this task has already acquired national character. Emergency medical care is organized in accordance with the decrees of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of April 7, 1990 339 On the establishment of the country’s emergency medical aid service in emergency situations , of 15 December 1990 On the establishment of the all-Union State system for prevention and emergency response , from September 12, 990 374 On creation of a unified information system of emergency medical aid service in emergency situations . By order of the Ministry of health of the USSR. 193 of may 14, 1990 identified the establishment of emergency medical care on the basis of existing and newly organized institutions of health to provide health care to victims of accidents, catastrophes, natural disasters and mass diseases. This document defines the organizational principles of creation of the service and summed up the material and personnel basis of ensuring the constant readiness of services to work in emergency situations, but also high mobility to the advancement of forces and resources in emergency situations. In Russia emergency medical care is organized in accordance with the resolution of Council of Ministers of the RSFSR of June 14, 1990, 192 On the establishment of the emergency medical aid service in emergency situations and the Order of the Ministry of health of the RSFSR of July 11, 1990, 115 On the establishment of the emergency medical aid in case of emergencies . 8.