Pregnancy is a natural physiological state, accompanied by a huge physical and emotional changes in the body of the mother, but also leading to certain psychological changes and future father.
Future parents should know and have a good understanding of how fertilization occurs, developing embryo, what are the most favorable conditions for fetal development and normal pregnancy.
Anatomy and physiology of the female genital organs. Of the female pelvis. Periods of a woman’s life.
You must know the structure of the genital organs, their primary purpose, the changes that occur in a woman’s body normal outside of pregnancy, during pregnancy, after childbirth, and also during a number of gynecological diseases. Bone the pelvis forms the birth canal through which the movement of the fetus. Adverse conditions of fetal development, disease transferred in childhood and in puberty, can lead to the disruption of the structure and development of the pelvis. The pelvis may be deformed as a result of injuries, tumors and other pathology. Differences in the structure of the female and male pelvis are particularly pronounced in Mature vozraste. The bones of the female pelvis is more delicate, smooth and less massive than men’s bones of the pelvis.The plane of the entrance to the pelvis in women has a transversely oval form, and men-a form of card hearts.
Female and male pelvis.
In ANATOMICHESKOE female pelvis is lower, wider and more volume. Pubic symphysis in the female pelvis shorter men. The sacrum of the female pelvis is wider, sacral dimple moderately arched. The pelvic cavity in women resembles a cylinder, and men funnel tapers down. Pubic angle is wider (90-100°), and men — 70-75°. Coccyx anteriorly is issued less than in the male pelvis. The ischium in the female pelvis parallel to each other, and the men agree. All these features are very important in the process of childbirth. Adult female pelvis consists of 4 bones: two pelvic, one sacral and one coccygeal firmly connected to each other. The pelvic bone, or ring, is to 16-18 years from 3 bones connected by cartilage at the acetabulum: Ilium, ischium, and pubis. After puberty the cartilage fused with each other, and form a continuous mass of bone — pelvic bone.
1 — sacral; 2 — the wing of the Ilium; 3 — anterior spine; 4 — anteroinferior spine; 5 – Vetlugina depression; 6 — strict-election hole; 7 — ischial tuberosity; 8 — pubic Duta; 9 — symphysis; 10 — inlet; 11 — unnamed line.
The upper and lower branches of the pubic bone in the front are connected to each other via cartilage, forming an inactive compound that allows him to stretch in pregnancy, thus increasing the volume of the pelvis. The sacrum and the coccyx, consisting of separate vertebrae, forming the posterior wall of the pelvis. Distinguish between large and small pelvis. The greatest value when pregnancy is the pelvis, as it is a part of the birth canal. Its shape and size are very important during childbirth. In the pelvis distinguish between the entrance cavity and the exit. In the pelvic cavity secrete a wide and narrow parts. In accordance with this distinguished four planes: the plane of the entrance to the pelvis, the plane of wide part of small pelvis, the plane of the narrow part of small pelvis and a plane of exit from the pelvis. If you connect the midpoints of all direct sizes of pelvis, you get a line, curved in the form of a hook, which is called wire axis of the pelvis. The movement of the fetus through the birth canal occurs in the direction of wire axis of the pelvis.
Is pregnant at the first visit of female consultation by inspection, feelings and measurements. Particular importance is attached to inspection lumbar-kre-stowage of a rhombus, which is a platform on the rear surface of the sacrum. The upper angle of the rhombus is the depression between the spinous process of the fifth lumbar vertebra and the beginning of the middle sacral crest. The bottom corner meets the top of the sacrum, lateral angles — rear-upper spines of the iliac bones.
A method of measuring the size of the pelvis.
Under normal size and shape of the pelvis, the rhombus approaches a square, with the wrong pelvic shape and its dimensions vary. Tatomer is a special tool for measuring the size of the pelvis.
Distantia spinarum — 25-26 cm, the distance between the most distant points of the front upper iliac spines bones. Distantia cristarim — 28-29 cm, the distance between the most distant points of the iliac bones of scallops. Distantia trochanterica — 30 to 31 cm, the distance between the most distant points of the skewers thighs. Conjugate diagonalis extarna — 20-21 cm, the distance from the top of your womb to the top of the rhombus of Michaelis.
The soft tissue of the pelvis bony pelvis is covered with the outer and inner surfaces. Pelvic floor muscles are arranged in three layers. This arrangement of muscles is of great practical importance during childbirth when expulsion of the fetus, as they stretch and form a broad muscular ring, which is a continuation of the bony ring. Part of the pelvic floor located between the rear soldering of the labia and anus, called the perineum obstetric.
1 — the bulbous-cavernous muscle; 2 — sciatic-pesheri-th muscle; 3 — superficial transverse perineal muscle; 4 — tendon center of the perineum; 5 — the sphincter of the rectum; 6 — urogenital diaphragm; 7 — bartolina iron; 8-10 — aperture of the pelvis.
Pelvic floor formed by three layers of muscle and fascia provides support for the internal genitalia and other abdominal organs. Inconsistency of the pelvic floor muscles can lead to prolapse of the genital organs, bladder, rectum.
Reproductive organs of women.
Genitals are divided into external and internal. The external genitals are: the Mons pubis, large and small labia, the clitoris, the hymen, the threshold of the vagina, pubis, gland of the vestibule of the vagina. The vulva is considered to be the organs of sexual feelings.
The external sex organs of the female.
1 — pubis; 2 — the clitoris; 3 — the outer opening of the urethra; 4 — hymen; 5 — entrance to the vagina; 6 — low sexual lip; 7 — the big sexual lip; 8 — posterior commissure of the lips; 9 — crotch; 10 — anus.