Occupational diseases

Consult with medical experts.

Occupational diseases arise as a result of exposure to the adverse factors of industrial environment. Clinical manifestations often do not have specific symptoms, and only information about the working conditions ill let you set revealed pathology belonging to the category of occupational diseases. Only some of them are characterized by particular Symp-domokomplekta caused by a kind of radiological, functional, biochemical and hematological changes.

A common classification of occupational diseases does not exist. The greatest recognition of the etiological classification principle. Based on this, we identified five groups of occupational diseases: 1) caused by exposure to chemical factors (acute and chronic intoxication, as well as their consequences, occurring with isolated or combined lesions of various organs and systems); 2) caused by exposure to dust (pneumonia-PS—silicosis, asbestosis, metallocenes, pneumoconiosis of electric welders and gas cutter, polishers, nadac nicknames, etc.); 3) caused by exposure to physical factors: vibration disease; diseases associated collection-action contact ultrasound vegetative polyneuritis; hearing loss by type of cochlear neuritis—noise disease; diseases associated with exposure to electromagnetic radiation and scattered laser radiation; luciabrust; diseases associated with changes in atmospheric pressure is known as decompression sickness, acute hypoxia; diseases that occur in adverse weather conditions—perepev, convulsive disease, occlusive disease, vegetative-sensitive polyneuritis; 4) caused by overexertion: diseases of the peripheral nerves and muscles neuritis, radiculopathies-Rita, vegetososudistye polyneuritis, cervical-brachial plexitis, vegetatively, myofascitis; diseases of the musculoskeletal system—chronic tendovaginitis.-nesiruosia ligamentitis, bursitis, ericontilt shoulder, deforming arthrosis; koordinatornyh neuroses — writer’s cramp, and other forms of functional dyskinesias; diseases of the vocal apparatus — falastine and organ of vision — asthenopia and myopia; 5) caused by the action of biological factors: infectious and parasitic tuberculosis, brucellosis, glanders, anthrax, dysbiosis, candidiasis of skin and mucous membranes, visceral candidiasis, etc.

Outside this etiological taxonomy are professional allergic diseases (conjunctivitis, diseases of the tops of their respiratory tract, bronchial asthma, dermatitis, eczema) and cancer (tumors of skin, bladder, liver, cancer of the upper respiratory tract.

There are also acute and chronic occupational diseases. Acute occupational disease (intoxication) occurs suddenly, after a single (within no more than one working shift) exposure to relatively high concentrations of chemical substances.

in the air of working zone, as well as levels and doses other adverse factors. Chronic disease is the result of long-term systemic effects on the body adverse factors.

For proper diagnosis of occupational disease is especially important thorough study of sanitarno-hygienic working conditions, medical history of the patient, his “professional route”, which includes all kinds of work that had been done from the beginning of employment. Some occupational diseases such as silicosis, beryl-lios, asbestosis, papilloma of the bladder, can be detected many years after the cessation of industrial hazard. The reliability of the diagnosis provided careful differentiation observed diseases with similar clinical symptoms the disease etiology unprofessional. Certain help in confirming the diagnosis is the detection in biological fluids of chemicals that caused the disease or its derivatives. In some cases, only a dynamic monitoring of the patient in the long term gives you the opportunity to definitively resolve the question of the relationship of the disease with the profession.

The main document used in determining this disease to professional is the “List of occupational diseases” with the instruction on its application approved by the MOH of the USSR and of the all.

Among the most important preventive measures for labor protection and prevention of occupational diseases are preliminary (at receipt for work) and periodic examinations of workers exposed to harmful and unfavorable working conditions.

OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES CAUSED BY EXPOSURE TO CHEMICAL FACTORS. In the economy of the country are varied in structure and physicochemical properties of chemical substances. In a production environment toxic substances enter the human body through the respiratory tract, skin, gastro-intestinal tract. After resorption into the blood and distribution to organs, the poisons are subject to transformations, and deposition in various organs and tissues (lungs, brain, bones, parenchymal organs, etc.). The allocation of ingested toxic substances occurs lung, kidney, through the gastrointestinal tract, skin.

Depending on the totality of the manifestations of action of the chemical and from a predominantly bruised bodies and systems of industrial poisons can be combined into the following groups: irritant; neurotropic third act; hepatotropic action; poisons blood; kidney poisons; industrial allergens; industrial carcinogens. This division is very conditional, characterizes only the main direction of action of poisons and does not exclude the diverse nature of their influence.

Diseases caused by exposure to irritating substances. Major groups of toxic substances irritant action make.

—chlorine and its compounds (hydrogen chloride, hydrochloric acid, chloride of lime, chloropicrin, phosgene, chlorine oxide of phosphorus, trichloride phosphorus, silicon tetrachloride.

—sulphur compounds (sulphur dioxide, sulphur trioxide, hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulphate, sulphuric acid.

— nitrogen compounds (nitrogene, nitric acid, ammonia, hydrazine.

—fluoride (hydrogen fluoride, hydrofluoric acid and its salts, perversonality.

—compounds of chromium (chromic anhydride, chromium oxide, bi-chromates of sodium and potassium, chrome alum.

carbonyl metal compounds (Nickel carbonyl, iron PENTACARBONYL.

soluble beryllium compounds (fluoride, beryllium, Florakis beryllium chloride beryllium sulfate beryllium.

All of these compounds penetrating into the body by inhalation, causing mainly respiratory system disorders; some of them can irritate the mucous membranes of the eyes. In acute intoxication the severity of the respiratory tract is determined not only by the concentration of the chemical in the air and the duration of its action, but also the degree of solubility of the poison in the water. Toxic substances, easily soluble in water (chlorine, sulphur dioxide, ammonia), are mainly on the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, trachea and major bronchi. The effect of these substances occurs immediately after contact with them. Substances difficult or almost insoluble in water (nitrogen oxides, phosgene, dimethyl sulphate), affect mainly the deep divisions of the respiratory system. Clinical signs when exposed to these substances, usually develop after a latent period of varying duration. Upon contact with the tissues of toxic substances cause an inflammatory reaction, and in more severe cases, tissue destruction and necrosis.

Acute toxic damage to the respiratory system. You may see the following clinical syndromes: acute infection in the upper respiratory tract, acute toxic bronchitis, acute toxic bronchiolitis, acute toxic pulmonary edema, acute toxic pneumonia.

In acute lesions of the upper respiratory tract develops acute toxic laringofaringit. In mild cases, victims complain of shortness of nasal breathing, scratchy and the feeling of scratching in throat, burning sensation behind the breastbone, dry cough, hoarseness. During the examination there is hyperemia of the mucous membranes of the nasal cavities, mouth, pharynx, larynx and trachea. In the nose accumulates mucus, swollen turbinate and the vocal folds. The process is usually easily reversible and ends with recovery within several days.

When exposed to high concentrations of irritants develop more pronounced changes: on the background of a sharp hyperemia of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract are marked areas of necrosis in the burn area, abundant Muco-purulent discharge in the nasal cavity and the trachea. In such cases, the process may be delayed and recovery occurs in 10 to 15 days or more. In some cases, especially upon accession of infection, the process becomes prolonged and may develop chronic catarrhal inflammation of the nasal cavity, larynx and trachea.

When exposed to very high concentrations of irritants may predominance of reflex reactions with spasm of the glottis; there is a lack of breath, accompanied by a whistle (stridor), and in some cases lightning death due to asphyxia. All these phenomena develop before the onset of inflammatory changes in the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and require emergency care.

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