Military medicine – yesterday, today and tomorrow.
In the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation established and steadily operates a multilevel system of medical support of troops (forces). It is an integral part of the public health system and ensures the implementation of the rights of servicemen to health protection and medical assistance in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation.
The development of the modern system of medical support of the armed forces took place in the conditions of reforming of the Armed Forces, the difficult socio-economic situation in the country, the unresolved socio-economic problems. In these years substantially increased the priority of the health of the military and the role of the human factor, which depends on the combat readiness of troops (forces), social well-being of staff and society as a whole. That is why the issue of human health in the state ceased to be purely medical. She is now rightly regarded as one of the key elements of the national security and combat readiness of the Russian Armed Forces.
Among the leading factors determining the specifics of the military healthcare include the size and structure of the served populations.
In 1996, the legislative right to health care through the Ministry of defense of Russia was used by 5.7 million people, of which more than 4 million – neoendorphin. The ratio of soldiers and other contingents has changed from 2:1 in 1992 to 1:2.5 in 1996 and continued to grow in favor of the latter.
This situation was caused by the increasing imbalance between the capabilities of military treatment-and-prophylactic institutions and the need to provide medical services to citizens in established by the legislation volume.
Military medicine, designed at its creation, mainly on security personnel, was in a very difficult position. The growing number of elderly and senile age, many of whom are disabled and required more extensive development of expensive types of specialized medical care, the formation of the system of health and social care alone, an increase in purchase of drugs, implants, and other medical assets.
In 1998, in accordance with the Federal law №76-FZ “On status of servicemen” to 5.7 million people previously attached to medical care to medical-prophylactic establishments of the Russian defense Ministry, adding another 600 thousand. This right was awarded to commissioned officers and warrant officers, as well as citizens, dismissed from military service due to injuries (wounds, traumas, contusions) or disease received in the performance of military duties.
All this happened in the conditions of insufficient and ever-decreasing funding of the medical service. Because the provision of medical care and treatment could not be delayed, the main task of the medical service was to ensure the minimum required level of medical and diagnostic work. This problem was solved in two ways.
the search for possibilities of additional financing of medical services through the introduction and improvement of the system of medical insurance, paid medical services, the use of other sources.
the development of organizational (more economical) forms of treatment and diagnostic process and the establishment of a mode of rigid economy of budgetary funds.
They most adequately reflect the conditions of the medical service in that period. In practice they used the methods of economic management theories and new forms of organization of therapeutic activities. All this allowed to stabilize the situation.
At present, military medicine is an integral part of the public health system, implementing the rights of servicemen to health protection and medical assistance in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation. She became a guarantor of fulfillment of complex of measures aimed at the preservation and strengthening of health personnel, providing them with necessary medical care and maintain sanitary welfare of the troops.
The main activities of the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation are.
maintaining and strengthening the health of military personnel.
improving the availability and quality of medical care of students with a statutory right to health care at the expense of the Ministry of defence.
strengthening the material-technical basis of military medical units, units and institutions.
a comprehensive upgrading of modern medical equipment for medical stations of military units, sanitary-epidemiological institutions, and military hospitals.
participation in realization of Federal target programs.
integration with public health facilities in order to maintain and improve the health of military family members and veterans of the Armed Forces.
Before the medical service has always been, and the challenge is the institutionalization of the system of prevention, examination, supervision and correction of the health status of young people at all stages, from pre-conscription period. This work was started long ago and is present. It has a long-term nature and is to maintain and improve the health of one of the most important priorities listed below.
implementation of all officials of requirements of legislative and normative-legal documents regulating the work of health protection of military personnel.
the tightening of the barrier function in the appeal of citizens on military service for the purpose of prevention in the Armed Forces of patients.
the close cooperation of the military authorities with legislative and Executive powers, both at Federal and regional level in matters of recruitment to the Armed Forces healthy addition.
sustainable sanitary and epidemiological welfare of personnel and areas of deployment of troops (forces) on the basis of strict compliance with statutory provisions regulating the conditions of life of servicemen, trouble-free operation of all life support systems of military camps.
prevention most relevant to the army and Navy of diseases, especially contagious, mental, drug addiction, alcoholism, diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, injuries.
the formation of the personnel of the army and Navy active vital position in maintaining health.
priority funding costs for military health care, including through extra-budgetary sources.
creation of conditions for the guaranteed medical support attached contingents.
It should be noted – the current system of selection of citizens on military service under the contract, and the requirements for their state of health allows to complete the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation healthy and practically healthy persons.
Maintaining and strengthening the health of military personnel identified as priority tasks in the professional activity of officers of the army and Navy.
Medical support of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is carried out according to the territorial principle, within the boundaries of the military district (fleet). The principle of territoriality is the organizational basis of the whole modern system of medical-diagnostic work in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and leads to the optimization of the entire medical system. Creating in a specific region of a complete infrastructure of ambulatory and hospital units, providing the necessary volume of diagnostic and specialized treatment of patients, allows to increase the capabilities of the existing medical and diagnostic facilities and to ensure the availability of medical care for patients in the territorial and temporal relations, results in savings, actual budget allocation, rational use of material resources effective use of services, eliminate duplicate (for solved tasks) structures of the medical service. This is a major priority in the activities of medical service in recent years.