Medicine and the latest medical technologies.
Medicine is the science and art of healing, scientific and practical activities aimed at the preservation and strengthening of health of people, recognition, treatment and prevention of diseases, prolongation of life.
Alternative medicine – definition and types.
Alternative medicine consists of a wide range of practices, products and therapies. A common feature is a statement about the ability to heal without.
Modern medicine uses the science of health, biomedical research, and medical technologies for the diagnosis and treatment of injury and disease, typically through medication or surgery, as well as through a variety of therapy – psychotherapy, applying splints and hoods, prosthetics, bioengineering, ion irradiation, and many others.
The word medicine is derived from the Latin ars medicina, meaning the art of healing.
The history of medicine.
Prehistoric medicine involves extensive use of plants (herbalism, herbalism), animal parts and natural minerals. Very often these materials were used by shamans, priests, medicine men, as a magical substance for the implementation of rituals. Well-known spiritual systems include animism (endowing inanimate objectivum), spiritualism (an appeal to gods or communion with the ancestral spirits), shamanism (the vesting of a person’s mystical power) and prediction (reaching the truth magically). Medical anthropology examines the ways in which culture and society centered around health and related issues.
The beginnings of medicine as a science appeared in ancient times, the first records of medicine we find in ancient Egypt, Babylon, India (Ayurvedic system of healing), China, Greece and Rome. The first physician of antiquity, whose name became known, was Imhotep, an ancient Egyptian physician. The first mention of hospitals are found in the history of Mihintale (Sri Lanka), where they found evidence of the existence of hospitals. Describe the various surgical operations, including plastic surgery was done by the Indian surgeon Sushruta.
The father of modern medicine considered to be the famous Greek physician Hippocrates (460-370 BC) who laid the foundations of a rational approach to medicine. Immortal the Hippocratic oath, reflecting the basic health principles that should guide the physician in our time. Hippocrates first established in medicine classification of diseases, highlighting the acute, chronic, endemic, epidemic diseases; introduced terms such as exacerbation, relapse, resolution, crisis, attack, spasm, peak, and convalescence.
The Greek physician Galen was one of the greatest surgeons of antiquity, studied and described the human anatomy, has carried out a number of bold for the medicine of his time operations, including brain surgery and eye surgery. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire at the dawn of the middle ages in Western Europe Greek medicine went into decline, but its influence was still strong in the Eastern (Byzantine) Roman Empire.
About the ancient Jewish medicine of the 1st century BC, we learn from the Torah, the five books of Moses, which describes the medical laws, and rituals of healing. The Jewish contribution to the development of modern medicine is rooted in the Byzantine era and is associated with the name of the doctor.
In the Islamic world after 750 BC the writings of Hippocrates, Galen, Sushruta were translated into Arabic studies to Muslim physicians contributed to the development of new medicine. Along with Imhotep and Hippocrates the father of medicine considered and Avicenna. He is the author of a Medical treatise, one of the most famous ancient medical writings. A great contribution to the development of a new medicine made famous Arab physicians Abulcasis, Avenzoar, Ibn-al-by nafiz, Averroes. Rates first criticized the Greek humoral theory, the influence of which, however, remained strong and in medieval Western and Arabic medicine. First public hospitals were hospitals in the Islamic Bimaristan.
However, the Black Death of the 14th and 15th centuries were equally devastating as the middle East and in Europe, is still tense debate about what medicine in Europe, on the whole, successfully coped with the pandemic, what is the medicine of the East. During this period, the horizon of European medical science and anatomy appear such well-known figures as Gabriel Falloppio and William Harvey.
The turning point in the development of new medicine, especially during the Black Death, was the refusal from the approach of traditional authorities . The point of view of the ancients was considered authoritative – if someone was watching in a kind of reverse phenomenon, it was considered an anomaly (like a change in views occurred in European society in General, compare the denial of the Copernican astronomical theories of Ptolemy). Scientists like Visalia either confirmed or refuted the ancient theory. The main medical works that have guided both students and experienced experts was Material medicine and Pharmacopoeia.
The book of Andreas Vesalius, De humani corporis fabrica . had a great impact on medical science and initiated the development of anatomy. French surgeon, Ambroise Pair is considered to be one of the founders of modern surgery. In 1676 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek his observations of microorganisms through a microscope marked the beginning of Microbiology. Independently from Ibn al-Nafisa who discovered the mechanism of breathing and its relation to circulation, the same discovery was made by Miguel Servet, published in his Manuscript of Paris in 1546, but his work remained not known to the General public. Servet then published it again in his theological work the Restoration of Christianity , for which he later paid with his life was burned at the stake. Later than this discovery was described by Renauld Columbus and Andrea Cesalpino. Subsequently, based in part on the works of the Italian surgeon and anatomist of Renauld Columba, the circulatory system described by the English physician William Harvey. One of the founders of physiology consider Burhave Herman, founder of Leiden medical school and author of Institutiones medicae . A French doctor of the 17th century Pierre Pusar is considered the father of modern dentistry.
Animal medicine was first separated from human medicine in 1761, the French veterinarian Claude Bourgelat, who founded the world’s first veterinary school in Lyon. Prior to that, doctors treated both humans and animals.
Modern scientific biomedical research (where results are testable and reproducible) gradually supplanted the Western tradition of medicine based on herbalism, Greek four gomorah and some other concepts. A new era of medicine began with the discovery of the smallpox vaccine, which was committed by Edward Jenner in the late 18th century (the impetus for this was the practice of vaccination in Asia), open Koch in 1880 of bacteria – borne diseases and antibiotics in 1990
A wave of new scientific discoveries in Europe after the 18th century further undermined the old foundations of medicine. A great contribution to the development of a new medicine made by German and Austrian doctors Rudolf Virchow, Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen. Charles Landstejn, Otto levy, the British Alexander Fleming, Joseph Lister, Francis Crick, Florence Nightingale. Spanish doctor Santiago Ramon and Cajal is considered one of the founders of modern neurobiology.
His mark in the new medicine has left new Zealand and Australian doctors with Maurice Wilkins, Howard Florey and Makarian Burnett.
In the history of the new medicine also included American doctors, William Williams keen, William Coley, James Watson, an Italian physician Salvador Luria, Swiss, Alexander Yersin, Kitasato, Japanese Shibasaburo, French doctors Jean-Martin Charcot, Claude Bernard, Paul Broca and others, Russian surgeon Nikolai Korotkov, sir William Osler, Harvey Cushing.
With the development of science and technology has expanded the use in medicine of drugs. Until the mid-18th century as a therapeutic means was used not only herbs. but animal products and even people. Pharmacology originated on the basis of herbalism, many modern medicines are still made from plants (atropine, ephedrine, aspirin, dekoven, Taxol, hyoscine, etc.). The pioneers of the vaccine was Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur.
The first antibiotic arsphenamine/salvarsan was discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1908 when as a result of researches it is noticed that under the influence of one of the compounds of arsenic the bacteria are killed and human cells do not. The first group of antibiotics are sulfa. The beginning of the era of modern antibiotics in medicine marked the opening of Alexander Fleming in 1928.
Pharmacology far stepped forward; modern biotechnology has made possible the development and production of drugs aimed at specific physiological processes, with consideration of compatibility with the human body to reduce possible side effects. A huge impact on new medicine genomics and genetics have identified the causes of several genetic disorders, advanced medical technologies, medical practice and decision-making today is not possible without Microbiology and genetics.
Evidence-based medicine is a contemporary movement to identify the most effective algorithms of medical practice, medical tools and techniques (ways how to do that) using systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The movement relies on modern information science, which allows you to search the collection, analysis in accordance with standard protocols and methods of diagnostics, prevention and treatment and their dissemination for wide use in medical practice. Network Khranovskoho Collaboration leads this movement. According to the report of 2001, with 160 systematic reviews Khranovskoho Cooperation, 21,3% of them showed insufficient effectiveness of medical devices and methods, 20% lack of effectiveness, and 22.5% reported a positive result.