Medicine (Latin medicina, from medicus physician, medical, medeor — ‘m going to Treat, apply medicines to restore health, to take measures to the termination of the disease.. heal; hereafter M. ) is a system of scientific knowledge and practical measures that combine the purpose of recognition, treatment and prevention of diseases, preservation and strengthening of health and working capacity of people, of life extension.
The modern M was the result of a long historical process; as M. always determined by the degree of society development, socio-economic systems, the achievements of science and technology, General level of culture. This article mainly discusses the development of M as a complex of scientific disciplines; the practice of medicine and organization of health care Health care system socio-economic and medical measures aimed at preserving and improving the health of the population. Basic forms of medical care — private practitioners, state and insurance. Medical insurance is the most characteristic for economically developed countries, based on a system of compulsory social insurance, which provides full or partial compensation for the costs of medical care. see also the article prevention and others.
The main sections of medicine.
Medicine, as a complex of scientific disciplinethat of three groups: the so-called medical and biological disciplines; clinical discipline; medico-social and hygienic disciplines.
Medical and biological disciplines beyond M and are largely relevant biological Sciences; these include morphological disciplines (anatomy * Anatomy — science of structure (mostly on the inside) the body. histology, Cytology), studying the structure of the human body (at any level from the whole organism, organs and systems to molecular); physiology, which explores the functions of the body; pathology Pathology (from Greek pathos — suffering, disease, and logos — word, teaching) is a field of theoretical and clinical medicine that studies the pathological processes (General pathology) and diseases (pathology); includes a pathological anatomy, pathological physiology. Pathology is called also any deviation from the norm.. studying the patterns of occurrence, development and course of morbid processes — it is divided into pathological anatomy and pathological physiology Pathological physiology — the branch of medicine that studies the origins, course and outcomes of disease processes and compensatory—adaptive reactions in a sick body. (chemical and physical physiological and pathological processes — the subject of biochemistry and Biophysics); pharmacology Pharmacology is the science that studies the action of drugs on the body. Closely linked to pharmaceutical chemistry and other fields of science: physiology, pathological physiology, biochemistry, chemistry of polymers.. which studies the effects on the body medications and identify their toxic effects. This group includes Microbiology (bacteriology and Virology), Parasitology, the study of diseases ; medical genetics, which explores the phenomena of heredity heredity — the transmission of parental traits to offspring (e.g., tendency to some disease). and variability in their relationship to human pathology, and so on.
A group of clinical disciplines that study human diseases, their treatment and prevention, especially in a vast and extensive; it includes therapy Therapy : 1) Part of a word or phrase used to refer to a type of treatment (oxygen therapy; antimicrobial therapy, hemotherapy was the treatment of blood). 2) the branch of medicine that studies the internal medicine, one of the oldest and major medical specialties. ) (so-called internal diseases), sections of which are cardiology, rheumatology, pulmonology, Nephrology, gastroenterology, Hematology, clinical endocrinology, geriatrics); Phthisiology; Pediatrics Pediatrics — branch of medicine that studies the anatomical and physiological peculiarities of child organism, the causes and mechanisms of development of childhood diseases and developing methods of treatment. ; medicine; psychiatry; dermatology and venereology ; balneology, physiotherapy and physical therapy; medical radiology and medical radiology; dentistry Dentistry is a field of clinical medicine that studies diseases of teeth, mouth, jaws and border areas of the face and neck. Includes therapeutic, surgical, orthopedic stomatology and stomatology of children’s age. ; obstetrics and gynecology; surgery; traumatology and orthopedics; anesthesiology and critical care medicine; neurosurgery Neurosurgery — section of clinical medicine dealing with organic diseases of the peripheral and Central nervous system, which treat primarily by surgical methods. ; Oncology; urology; otolaryngology; ophthalmology and others. The criteria we use to refer to an independent clinical disciplines of heterogeneous preferential localization localization location. study of disease in one organ or one organ system (e.g., neuropathology, ophthalmology); age (e.g., Pediatrics), and sex (obstetrics and gynecology) characteristics of the patient; characteristics of the causative agent and the nature of the pathological process (for example, Phthisiology), diagnostic and therapeutic methods (e.g., radiology, surgery, physiotherapy). Each of the clinical disciplines includes sections on research methods and the patient’s signs of disease — semiotics, which becomes the basis of machine methods of diagnosis.
A group of medico-social and hygienic disciplines that study the impact of the environment on the body and measures the improvement of the health of the population. includes social hygiene and health organization; General hygiene, hygiene of families and teenagers, municipal hygiene, hygiene of nutrition. hygiene, radiation, occupational health; epidemiology and medical geography; this group also includes medical ethics and so on.
Given the division of medicine on probation. Social aspects in varying degrees, is inherent in all medical disciplines, as well as scientific-practical complex target destination (military medicine, space medicine, sports medicine, forensic medicine, etc.). Medical Microbiology, Parasitology, for example, is usually attributed to the biomedical group, but they are also related to epidemiology serve as the scientific basis of many preventive measures, and therefore in practice often act as a health and social science. Many disciplines are closely intertwined (for example, hygiene of children and adolescents, and Pediatrics). Characteristic of the so-called theoretical M (i.e. biomedical Sciences) the experimental method is increasingly penetrate the field of clinical and hygienic M.
The history of medicine.
The appearance of the medicine and its development to the 16th century.
The beginnings of healing and hygiene knowledge born of observations and experiences in the earliest stages of human existence and entrenched in the customs and techniques of treatment and protection from diseases, formed the folk medicine and hygiene. A significant role among the preventive and therapeutic measures played using the forces of nature (sun, air. water), empirically found drugs of vegetable and animal origin.
Initially the disease was viewed as foreign and hostile to man a living being, penetrating the body and causing a painful condition. Helplessness before the forces of nature, lack of understanding of the surrounding world have led to the emergence of ideas about evil spirits, sesudahnya in person, and the use of a number of magical means and methods of treatment (spells), charms, prayers, etc.), enclosing the rudiments of psychotherapy. Evolved healers. shamanism arose, priestly, temple M.
Written monuments of the Ancient East (ancient Egyptian health papyri; the laws of Hammurabi; the laws of Manu and Ayurveda in India and others) indicate that in ancient States by means of legislation was regulated conditions of work of doctors until the fees for the treatment and establishing different degrees of responsibility for damage to the patient.
Doctors and priests, along with the mystical, magical forms of healing, used rational therapeutic techniques and healing by traditional medicine. The emphasis on dietetics, hygiene regulations, massage (FR. massage, from Arabic. mass touch) — the mechanical action of special techniques on the surface of the body or any organ with a medical or hygienic purpose. Increases sweat and sebum secretion, improves blood and lymph circulation, metabolism. Held hands, at least — instruments.. water procedures, gymnastics. Used surgical methods: Craniotomy, in cases of difficult delivery — cesarean section and embryotomy and so on. M. ancient Chinese used more than 2000 medicines, among which a special place was occupied by ginseng, mercury, rhubarb root, camphor and others. Several millennia has a peculiar method of acupuncture.
Extensive details about medicine of the peoples who lived in the 1st Millennium BC on the territory of Central Asia, Iran, Azerbaijan and Afghanistan to contain “Avesta” (9th century BC — 3rd century BC), the Holy book of Zoroastrianism. In that period there was the first understanding of the anatomy and physiology of man. An important place was given to the prevention of disease (“Pluck the disease before he touches you”), which meant a prescription hygienic character, including nutrition. family life, on the attitude to pregnant women and nursing mothers. about the prohibition of drinking intoxicating beverages and more.