“Evidence recognized any items which served as instruments of crime or have retained on themselves the traces of the crime, which was directed the criminal acts, property, money and other valuables obtained through criminal actions or acquired by criminal means, other objects and documents that can serve as a means for the detection of crime and establishing circumstances of criminal case”. (article 81 of the CPC.
To find out the attitude of the seized item to the crime and the evidentiary value of this object in many cases is possible only by examinations.
Depending on the nature of the evidence and the issues to be addressed, expertise can be different.
Objects of forensic medical examination of material evidences are very diverse: blood, bodily excretions, hair, bones, soft body tissue, etc.
To the production of these examinations is allowed only doctors – forensic experts who have undergone special training in forensic examination of physical evidence.
In the research process, physical evidence, the expert is required to economize subject to the object so that part of it was left for a possible re-examination. Continue reading
Modern knowledge of prehistoric medicine is based primarily on the study of fossil remains of prehistoric man and his guns; some information also provides practice of a number of surviving primitive peoples. Fossils are traces of such lesions of the skeleton as bone deformities, fractures, osteomyelitis, osteitis, tuberculosis, arthritis, rickets and osteoma. No data on other diseases, but most likely almost all modern disease existed in prehistoric times.
Primitive medicine was based on the assumption of a supernatural cause of the disease, namely malicious influence of evil spirits or sorcerers. Therefore, the treatment consisted of magical spells, charms, chants and various elaborate rituals. Evil spirits had to scare off a noise to deceive masks or change the name of the patient. Mainly used sympathetic magic (based on the belief that man can supernaturally influence of his name or representing its subject, such as an image). Magic medicine is still practiced on the Islands of Polynesia, some parts of Central Africa and Australia.
The magic medicine has given rise to quackery – apparently the first human occupation. Preserved on the cave walls in the Pyrenees CRO-magnon drawings that are older than 20 thousand years, izobretatelya-the sorcerer in the skin and with deer antlers on his head. Continue reading
Pregnancy is a natural physiological state, accompanied by a huge physical and emotional changes in the body of the mother, but also leading to certain psychological changes and future father.
Future parents should know and have a good understanding of how fertilization occurs, developing embryo, what are the most favorable conditions for fetal development and normal pregnancy.
Anatomy and physiology of the female genital organs. Of the female pelvis. Periods of a woman’s life.
You must know the structure of the genital organs, their primary purpose, the changes that occur in a woman’s body normal outside of pregnancy, during pregnancy, after childbirth, and also during a number of gynecological diseases. Bone the pelvis forms the birth canal through which the movement of the fetus. Adverse conditions of fetal development, disease transferred in childhood and in puberty, can lead to the disruption of the structure and development of the pelvis. The pelvis may be deformed as a result of injuries, tumors and other pathology. Differences in the structure of the female and male pelvis are particularly pronounced in Mature vozraste. The bones of the female pelvis is more delicate, smooth and less massive than men’s bones of the pelvis.The plane of the entrance to the pelvis in women has a transversely oval form, and men-a form of card hearts.
Female and male pelvis. Continue reading