Modern knowledge of prehistoric medicine is based primarily on the study of fossil remains of prehistoric man and his guns; some information also provides practice of a number of surviving primitive peoples. Fossils are traces of such lesions of the skeleton as bone deformities, fractures, osteomyelitis, osteitis, tuberculosis, arthritis, rickets and osteoma. No data on other diseases, but most likely almost all modern disease existed in prehistoric times.
Primitive medicine was based on the assumption of a supernatural cause of the disease, namely malicious influence of evil spirits or sorcerers. Therefore, the treatment consisted of magical spells, charms, chants and various elaborate rituals. Evil spirits had to scare off a noise to deceive masks or change the name of the patient. Mainly used sympathetic magic (based on the belief that man can supernaturally influence of his name or representing its subject, such as an image). Magic medicine is still practiced on the Islands of Polynesia, some parts of Central Africa and Australia.
The magic medicine has given rise to quackery – apparently the first human occupation. Preserved on the cave walls in the Pyrenees CRO-magnon drawings that are older than 20 thousand years, izobretatelya-the sorcerer in the skin and with deer antlers on his head. Continue reading
Medicine (Latin medicina, from medicus physician, medical, medeor — ‘m going to Treat, apply medicines to restore health, to take measures to the termination of the disease.. heal; hereafter M. ) is a system of scientific knowledge and practical measures that combine the purpose of recognition, treatment and prevention of diseases, preservation and strengthening of health and working capacity of people, of life extension.
The modern M was the result of a long historical process; as M. always determined by the degree of society development, socio-economic systems, the achievements of science and technology, General level of culture. This article mainly discusses the development of M as a complex of scientific disciplines; the practice of medicine and organization of health care Health care system socio-economic and medical measures aimed at preserving and improving the health of the population. Basic forms of medical care — private practitioners, state and insurance. Medical insurance is the most characteristic for economically developed countries, based on a system of compulsory social insurance, which provides full or partial compensation for the costs of medical care. see also the article prevention and others.
The main sections of medicine.
Medicine, as a complex of scientific disciplines consists of three groups: the so-called medico biologicalcondition; clinical discipline; medico-social and hygienic disciplines. Continue reading
Innovation, innovation – the end result was-Oh deyat-ti which has been embodied in the form of a product innovation, technological innovation, process innovation, personnel innovation, financial innovation, organizational innovation, economic innovation, social innovation. On the other hand innovation is the process where the invention or idea acquires an economic content, which is C/o practical use of ideas and inventions leads to creation of the best properties of products, technologies, and in the case that it has focused on economic gain, profit, innovation emergence may cause additional income. Innovation is interpreted as transformation of potential scientific and technical progress in real, embodied in new products and techology. Innovative activities-t starts with innovation. Innovation – scientific knowledge that have new or significantly different from existing solutions.
2. What is the innovation process? How do the innovation and the innovation process, the terms innovation and innovation process (PI) is not unique, although close. UI is associated with the creation, development and rasprostranennosti. There are 3 logical forms of IP: -simple in-house (natural), simple interorganizational (commodity) -advanced Simple UI involves the creation and use of innovations within the same organization. In a simple inter-organizational innovation acts as the subject of the sale. Advanced is manifested in the creation of new producers of innovations, the violation of monopoly of the manufacturer-pioneer that promotes C/o mutual competition to perfection of consumer properties of manufactured goods. Continue reading