In the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation established and steadily operates a multilevel system of medical support of troops (forces). It is an integral part of the public health system and ensures the implementation of the rights of servicemen to health protection and medical assistance in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation.
The development of the modern system of medical support of the armed forces took place in the conditions of reforming of the Armed Forces, the difficult socio-economic situation in the country, the unresolved socio-economic problems. In these years substantially increased the priority of the health of the military and the role of the human factor, which depends on the combat readiness of troops (forces), social well-being of staff and society as a whole. That is why the issue of human health in the state ceased to be purely medical. She is now rightly regarded as one of the key elements of the national security and combat readiness of the Russian Armed Forces.
Among the leading factors determining the specifics of the military healthcare include the size and structure of the served populations.
In 1996, the legislative right to health care through the Ministry of defense of Russia was used by 5.7 million people, of which more than 4 million – neoendorphin. The ratio of soldiers and other contingents has changed from 2:1 in 1992 to 1:2.5 in 1996 and continued to grow in favor of the latter. Continue reading
The most common of the inflammatory diseases of the urinary organs, constituting about 2/3 of all urological diseases is the pyelonephritis. This infectious inflammatory process in renal tissue and tubules.
Pyelonephritis is the most common kidney disease and common in people of different sex and age, therefore such patients have to treat the doctors of many specialties – urologists, nephrologists, paediatricians, physicians, obstetricians and gynaecologists, surgeons and other specialists. Pyelonephritis in children is on the second place after respiratory diseases. Acute pyelonephritis is observed at an average of 2.5 % of pregnant women, and often in the second half of pregnancy. This is due to the decreased tone of the urinary tract as a result of hormonal changes occurring in pregnancy and compression of the ureters pregnant uterus. These factors create favorable conditions for the occurrence of acute exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis during pregnancy.
Women suffer from acute and chronic pyelonephritis in 5 times more often than men, due to the peculiarities of the anatomical structure of the urethra in women: it is much shorter than in men, is close to the vagina, which facilitates easier penetration of infection by ascending into the bladder.
Pyelonephritis in men young and middle age is more often secondary and associated mainly with urolithiasis, chronic prostatitis,various anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract infections and other diseases. Continue reading
Pharmacy information systems manage medical information, svyazannoy medication and use of drugs for the treatment of patients. Due to the nature of the tasks and requirements to pharmaceutical information, pharmacy was one of the first among the health services who find themselves in significant gains from the development of medical Informatics and applications of computers in health care. Today computerized information systems are part of the fabric of pharmacy, in hospitals, and in a city network. In this Chapter, we review the basics of pharmacy, will discuss how the principles of medical Informatics impact on the functions of pharmacies and consider the possible development of a computerized pharmacy information systems in the future.
For many years the pharmaceutical industry was considered as profession-oriented products associated with collecting, extraction and preparation of medicinal ingredients in order to create the final dosage form suitable for administration to the patient. A gradual transfer of function of preparation of drugs for pharmaceutical companies has changed the role of the pharmacist; modern pharmaceutical practice includes the functions are oriented towards the patient and on the dispensing of medicines, and can be characterized as the management of the use of drugs. Management of a drug defined as “a conglomerate of knowledge, assessments, judgments, procedures, skills, controls and ethics to ensure optimal safety and efficacy the prescription and use of drugs” . Continue reading