Modern knowledge of prehistoric medicine is based primarily on the study of fossil remains of prehistoric man and his guns; some information also provides practice of a number of surviving primitive peoples. Fossils are traces of such lesions of the skeleton as bone deformities, fractures, osteomyelitis, osteitis, tuberculosis, arthritis, rickets and osteoma. No data on other diseases, but most likely almost all modern disease existed in prehistoric times.
Primitive medicine was based on the assumption of a supernatural cause of the disease, namely malicious influence of evil spirits or sorcerers. Therefore, the treatment consisted of magical spells, charms, chants and various elaborate rituals. Evil spirits had to scare off a noise to deceive masks or change the name of the patient. Mainly used sympathetic magic (based on the belief that man can supernaturally influence of his name or representing its subject, such as an image). Magic medicine is still practiced on the Islands of Polynesia, some parts of Central Africa and Australia.
The magic medicine has given rise to quackery – apparently the first human occupation. Preserved on the cave walls in the Pyrenees CRO-magnon drawings that are older than 20 thousand years, izobretatelya-the sorcerer in the skin and with deer antlers on his head. Continue reading
Medicine (Latin medicina, from medicus physician, medical, medeor — ‘m going to Treat, apply medicines to restore health, to take measures to the termination of the disease.. heal; hereafter M. ) is a system of scientific knowledge and practical measures that combine the purpose of recognition, treatment and prevention of diseases, preservation and strengthening of health and working capacity of people, of life extension.
The modern M was the result of a long historical process; as M. always determined by the degree of society development, socio-economic systems, the achievements of science and technology, General level of culture. This article mainly discusses the development of M as a complex of scientific disciplines; the practice of medicine and organization of health care Health care system socio-economic and medical measures aimed at preserving and improving the health of the population. Basic forms of medical care — private practitioners, state and insurance. Medical insurance is the most characteristic for economically developed countries, based on a system of compulsory social insurance, which provides full or partial compensation for the costs of medical care. see also the article prevention and others.
The main sections of medicine.
Medicine, as a complex of scientific disciplines consists of three groups: the so-called medico biologicalcondition; clinical discipline; medico-social and hygienic disciplines. Continue reading
Infectious disease prevalent worldwide caused by various microorganisms. “Infectious” disease known since ancient times, information about them can be found in the most ancient monuments of writing in the Indian Vedas, Ancient China and Ancient Egypt. Descriptions of some infectious diseases, such as dysentery, tetanus, erysipelas, anthrax, viral hepatitis, etc. can be detected in the writings of Hippocrates (460-377 BC). In the Russian Chronicles of the infection, described under the name of epidemic, endemic morovich diseases, emphasizing the main feature – mass, high lethality and rapid prevalence among the population. Described devastating epidemics and pandemics of infectious diseases. It is known that in the Middle ages was raging plague (“black death”), which died out a third of Europe’s population, and around the world from the plague in the fourteenth century killed more than 50 million people. During the First world war was the influenza pandemic (“Spanish flu”), which affected 500 million people, 20 million of them died. For a long time about the cause of infectious diseases were not known, believed that these diseases arise in connection with the “miasma” – poisonous exhalations of air. This teaching in the sixteenth century gave way to the doctrine of “contagia” (Trekstore).Infectious diseases – a large group of human diseases arising from effects on the body of viruses, bacteria and protozoa. They develop in the interaction of two independent biological systems of microorganism and of microorganism in the conditions of influence of external environment, and each of them has its specific biological activity. Continue reading