Innovations in medicine
Innovation, innovation – the end result was-Oh deyat-ti which has been embodied in the form of a product innovation, technological innovation, process innovation, personnel innovation, financial innovation, organizational innovation, economic innovation, social innovation. On the other hand innovation is the process where the invention or idea acquires an economic content, which is C/o practical use of ideas and inventions leads to creation of the best properties of products, technologies, and in the case that it has focused on economic gain, profit, innovation emergence may cause additional income. Innovation is interpreted as transformation of potential scientific and technical progress in real, embodied in new products and techology. Innovative activities-t starts with innovation. Innovation – scientific knowledge that have new or significantly different from existing solutions.
2. What is the innovation process? How do the innovation and the innovation process, the terms innovation and innovation process (PI) is not unique, although close. UI is associated with the creation, development and rasprostranennosti. There are 3 logical forms of IP: -simple in-house (natural), simple interorganizational (commodity) -advanced Simple UI involves the creation and use of innovations within the same organization. In a simple inter-organizational innovation acts as the subject of the sale. Advanced is manifested in the creation of new producers of innovations, the violation of monopoly of the manufacturer-pioneer that promotes C/o mutual competition to perfection of consumer properties of manufactured goods. As the transformation of IP into marketable allocate 2 organic phase: -establishment -spread the First includes consecutive stages of scientific researches, development and organization of pilot production and marketing, organization of commercial production. 1 phase not yet realized the benefits of innovation, but only creates the preconditions for such implementation. At the 2nd phase of public-beneficial effect redistributed the manufacturers, and of producers and consumers. As a result of diffusion increases not just the number but also change qual-e characteristics as producers and consumers.
3. What is common and what is the difference between innovation and innovation? Innovation, innovation – the end result was-Oh deyat-ti which has been embodied in the form of a product innovation, technological innovation, process innovation, personnel innovation, financial innovation, organizational innovation, economic innovation, social innovation. On the other hand innovation is the process where the invention or idea acquires an economic content, which is C/o practical use of ideas and inventions leads to creation of the best properties of products, technologies, and in the case that it has focused on economic gain, profit, innovation emergence may cause additional income. Innovation is interpreted as transformation of potential scientific and technical progress in real, embodied in new products and techology. Innovative activities-t starts with innovation. Innovation – scientific knowledge that have new or significantly different from existing solutions.
4. The changes in the state’s economy is influenced by innovation? Strategy innovators aims to beat the competition by creating an innovation that will be recognized as unique to a certain region. Schumpeter believed that innovations give impetus to the development of the economy. In the social process of innovation involves a large number of people, resulting in the change factors of the economy. The process of innovation does not flow evenly, it is characterized by jerky and irregular. Behind the innovator who overcame financial and technological difficulties, followed by others. By the end of this period, the economy is in distress and making a profit in the future becomes doubtful.
5. What types of innovation do You know? Technology innovation is the innovation related to the design and development of new or improved technological processes. Product innovation innovation associated with the development and implementation of new or improved products (goods) or already implemented in the production practice of other enterprises and distributed through technological exchange (non-patent license, consulting). Process-innovation – innovation related to the development and implementation of new or significantly improved production processes based on the use of new production equipment, new methods of organization of the production process or their combination. The service innovation – innovation related to the direct interaction of subjects of innovative activities to meet the needs of those activities. HR innovation – targeted activities for implementing the personnel innovations, directed on increase of level and ability of personnel to solve problems of effective functioning and development of socio-economic structures of the organization and its subsidiaries. Financial innovation creating new financial instruments and financial technologies with a view to profit and reduce risks. Organizational innovation – innovation is associated with creating or improving the organization and management of production, processes, human resources. Economic innovation innovation associated with the improvement in the financial, billing, accounting fields. Social innovation – innovation related to the improvement of social conditions of life, environment, hygiene and safety, culture and leisure. 6. Describe the properties of innovation.
For innovation 3 important properties: a scientific-tehnicheska novelty, industrial applicability, commercial feasibility. Scientific and technical innovations should: a) be novel; b) to meet market demand and bring profit to the manufacturer. The main feature of innovation, highlighting the innovative process (IP) is an “over-speaker”. Innovation processes are characterized by far lower than the relatively stable economic processes, record time. You can talk about the time constant of the PI, changing in the range 2..4 months. Not considering this factor leads: small p/n die, and for large implementation of Innov significantly reduces the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of the p/p. an Essential feature of innovation is the scientific and technical novelty. Therefore, it is necessary to distinguish innovations from the minor modifications in products and technological processes (changes of color, shape, etc.); insignificant technical or external changes of the product and of its components; from the expansion of the product range through the development of production is not produced before at the given enterprise, but already known on the market.
7.As innovation and innovation affect the competitiveness of an economic object? . Formal definition of innovation might be. this from the standpoint of competitiveness: innovation recognized activities aimed at improving the competitiveness of the entity in the short, medium and long-term time horizons. Innovation, causing lives to this kind of activity is called an innovation. T. O. in order to answer the question. if, for example, a new specific p/n financial instruments innovation, you must answer the question: will this lead to competitiveness? If Yes, then implementing Finance tools. Innov, if not, Finance the tools may be new, but not undisputed innovation.
8. Give the definition of the object and subject of innovation? Give clarifying examples.
Subjects of innovative activity can be any entrepreneurial activity. Performed in the process of innovation functions entities can act as customer, artist, innovative programs, consumers of innovation. The subject innovation MB. at the macroeconomic level is the country, at the meso level, region, industry, micro-economic level, p/p, the municipality.
The object of innovation activities are all kinds of innovations that can be embodied in goods, works and services so that these products could be considered new or improved, that is has acquired the status of innovation. Objects of innovative activity can be: intellectual property objects (inventions, useful models, industrial samples, etc.); means of individualization of persons and goods (brand name, trademark, service mark, appellation of origin of goods); the results of completed research, design and experimental, technological works and experimental development, etc. 10. What constitutes an innovative environment in the region? for regional level innovation may be the mechanism of regional governance leading to improvement of its competitiveness. The implementation process of innovations will be considered as Inn the process may consist in introducing, for example, organizational innovation level of the region. An example of innovation, the region level is the creation of transport corridors and infrastructure support zones, a network of business incubators, technology parks (Technopark the innovation infrastructure entity involved in formation of favourable conditions for development of entrepreneurship in scientific-technical sphere in the presence of feature information and the experimental base and high concentration of qualified personnel. TP is a form of territorial integration of science, education and production in enterprises, scientific organizations, design bureaus, educational institutions, industrial enterprises or their affiliates), investment funds, corporate educational and scientific-technical centers.